biomedicalephemera:

Facial clefts in the embryo and adult

Early in the development of the embryo, we’re basically just a tube, with a notochord (the precursor to our nervous system) and three layers of tissue. The branchial arches, neural crest, and somites join together as they develop to form the head and neck.

To become a creature with a face, this tube must close in a very specific way, and in mammals, the way that it comes together is very similar between the species. In fact, most mammals can end up developing very similar facial deformities.

In the human, there are 15 “clefts” (separations) that join together very early on in development. The primary regions of the face are completely brought together before the embryo is even the size of a penny (17 mm - about 2/3 of an inch). Most clefts are brought together before the fetus is 1 cm long - less than the diameter of a AAA battery.

Since most of the facial clefts are some of the earliest possible non-lethal deformities, the failure of one or more of them to fuse does not stop the development, unlike many other early congenital problems. For most serious deformities at this stage, the genes simply stop giving cogent signals to one another, and the female’s body self-aborts, as it is not evolutionarily advantageous to create a non-viable fetus.

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While all facial clefts have the potential to fail to fuse, the ones that most frequently result in viable fetuses are the clefts of the palate and the maxillary processes. These can occur bilaterally (on both sides), unilaterally (only on one side), and can involve part of the palate, only the palate, only the lip, or the complete palate and lip structure. The most common defect is an isolated unilateral cleft lip, formerly known as a "harelip" (though that term is often seen as derogatory these days).

Due to the fact that the face is the way most people identify one another, its importance in human culture can make any facial deformity a problem for the person who has it. While cleft lips have been fixed for as long as people have had stitches (at least 5000 years), fixing the bone clefts has been much more difficult and daunting. In 1827, John Peter Mettauer completed the first successful bone-flap transplant to fix a cleft palate, and reconstructive surgery has only improved since then.

While most facial cleft anomalies are now routinely fixed at a very young age in industrialized nations, there are many parts of the world where hospital access is limited, and cleft deformities are not easily repaired. The loss of nutrition that suckling difficulty in children with cleft palates have can have life-long consequences. And that’s assuming the infant survives.

Charitable organizations such as Operation Smile attempt to fill that gap - literally.

(via peurecommandable)

from the Army Medical Museum

: catalogue.swanngalleries.com

biomedicalephemera:

Herpes zoster ophthalmalacus

[Yes, “herpes of the eye” is a real thing. It’s actually multiple things.]

Herpes zoster, the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles, can infect the fifth cranial nerve, causing ocular manifestations (corneal inflammation and intense pain) and facial shingles. It’s considered an ophthalmic emergency, as permanent damage can be caused to the ocular nerve and eyeball.

Herpes simplex, the virus that causes oral and genital herpes, can also infect the eye, causing herpes keratitis, which is also an ophthalmic emergency. Both eye infections can cause scarring along the visual axis, and permanent vision impairment, and generally have to be treated with antiviral pills and eyedrops.

Atlas of the External Diseases of the Eye. Dr. O. Haab, 1899.

(via scientificillustration)

(via headfullofid)

"Compound fracture leading to amputation, 19th century. Person survived & lived a long life"

twitter.com/ChirurgeonsAppr

Compulsory mask, to combat the flu epidemic after the World War, 1918-1919 / Sam Hood by State Library of New South Wales collection

: pinterest.com/randomindex/elettrogenica

: pinterest.com/randomindex/elettrogenica/

(via deaddogsinspace)

aubreylstallard:

Yoshimura Lanzhou

thetemperamentalgoat:

Utrecht goitre (Utrechtse Krop) is the title of a collection of photographs by Paul Kooiker. The book includes images of the file Utrecht University Hospital, some of them around 1890.

“Utrechtse Krop” (Utrecht goitre) was the name given to a thyroid condition once common in the Dutch town of Utrecht, due to a deficiency of iodine in drinking water.

(via fuckyeahmedicalstuff)

jahsonic:

Criminal Woman, the Prostitute and the Normal Woman (1893) - Cesare Lombroso, Guglielmo Ferrero

(via nickdrake)

blackpaint20:

Shell wound of the wrist.

Medical Illustration by William Shultze, 1863.

(via zygoma)

criminalwisdom:

Dissection: Photographs of a Rite of Passage in American Medicine 1880-1930.

"In the 19th century, anatomy professors had a hard time legally obtaining bodies for their students. So they hired “resurrectionists” to dig up recently buried bodies from graveyards. The process was shrouded in secrecy. Professors and janitors guarded the dissection room and students were expelled if they divulged the identity of their subjects."
~ Little Brown Mushroom
Image via Photography Prison.

soitrots:

Unkown, Rush Medical School dissecting hall ~1900

 
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